Способы выражения модальности в современных английском и русском языках.

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Introduction 4 1 Means expression modality in English 5 1.1 Inclination 5 1.2 Modal Verbs 7 2 Modal words in Russian 15 2.1 the Concept of modality in Russian 15 2.2 Unconditional and selеctive modality 19 3. Recommendations to the translator 21 Conclusion 23 Bibliography 25

One of the problems of modern linguistics is the definition of the essence of the concept of “modality”. In linguistics, the problem of modality has received wide coverage. Modality is a polysemous term. It is necessary to clearly distinguish between the meanings of this term, taking into account in what area and in what situation it is used. The relevance of this study is beyond doubt, since in linguistics there is still no consensus about the category of modality and its means of expression.

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.Объектом исследования является категория модальности. The subject of the research is the main means of expressing modality in English and Russian. The aim of the study is to identify features in the means of expression of modality in English and Russian. To achieve this goal it is necessary to solve the following tasks: 1. Identify the means of expressing modality in various languages. 2. To assess the significance of modality revealed in the course of the study. 3. Define the concept of modality. The following scientific description methods were used in the work: the comparative method, the method of continuous sampling and the method of quantitative analysis. The work consists of introduction, three chapters, conclusion, list of references.


In English, both grammatical and lexical means of expressing modality are used. Grammatical means include modal verbs, adverbs. Modal verbs express not action, but relation to action (possibility, necessity, probability, etc.). They are not used independently, but only together with the semantic verb. In English, the main modal verbs are: • can (physical ability to do something) • may (might) (be able, permission to do smth) • must (need to do something) Also modal verbs include: • should • ought to • need Modal verbs in English have the following features: 1. modal verbs do not have a full set of forms, they have no form of units. 3 l. present tense. 2. they have no participle 3. a number of verbs have no past tense 4. in the formation of negative and interrogative forms are not used auxiliary verbs 5. after modal verbs the infinitive is used without a particle to 6. they have no infinitive. Therefore, they cannot form complex forms using auxiliary verbs. Therefore, their “substitutes” are used to transfer their values: In English, there is a good concept ‘fillers' - about the words that fill our speech, not allowing the pauses between thoughts to drag on. In Russian, there is no such thing yet, it can be translated as "words-fillers" that fill our pauses, sometimes they are called "words-parasites", although, in my opinion, they perform an important role in any language. An important role is also played by modal words. There are no special modal verbs in Russian, which are very often used in English or German, but these modal words, like “should”, “maybe”, “should”, “need”, largely fulfill their role. Something between filler words and modal words are evaluative words that express the speaker’s subjective expression and encourage us to share his assessment. These are words like: “imagine yourself”, “you would not believe”, “agree” and the like.

Список литературы

1. Arakin, V.D. Comparative typology of English and Russian languages: studies. manual / V.D. Arakin. - M.: FIZMATLIT, 2000, 235 s. 2. Bondarko A.V. Modality. Introductory notes // Theory of functional grammar: Temporality. Modality. - L .: Science, 1990, 187 p. 3. Vinogradov V.V. On the category of modality and modal words in the Russian language // Proceedings of the Institute of the Russian language. - M., 1950. - Vol. 2. - 97 seconds 4. Ermolaeva L.S. Understanding of modality in modern linguistics (on the material of German and English) // Linguistics and methodology in higher education: Sat. scientific tr. - M., 1978. - Vol. 8. - 101 seconds 5. Zelenetsky A.L. Comparative typology of the main European languages / Zelenetsky AL. M-Academy, 2004, 165 p.Золотова Г.А. О модальности предложения в русском языке // Филологические науки. – 1962. – №4. – С. 65-79. 6. Zubov A.V. On the linguistic means of expressing the category of assessment in modern English. Dis. .cand. filol. sciences. - M., 1974. - 193 p. 7. Gigadlo, V.N. Modern English. Theoretical Grammar Course: textbooks for universities / V.N. Gigadlo, I.P. Ivanova, L.L. Iofik. - M.: ed. "Literature in foreign languages", 1999. - 301s. 8. Ivanova, I.P. Theoretical grammar of modern English: textbooks for universities / I.P. Ivanova, V.V. Burlakova, G.G. Pocheptsov. - M .: Higher. school, 2001. - 64s. 9. Ionina, A.A. English grammar. Theory and practice: teaching for universities / A.A. Ionina, A.S. Sahakyan. - M .: Prospect. - 2008. - 77с. 10. Kachalova, K.N. Practical grammar of the English language: university / KN. Kachalova, E.E. Izrailevich. - M.: Ladkom. - 2012. - 36s. 11. Kolshansky G.V. The ratio of subjective and objective factors in the language. \ Kolshansky GV M .: Science, 1975. - 231 p. 12. Courtney, R. English phrasal verbs: textbook for universities / R. Courtney. - M .: Russian language, 2000. - 74s. 13. A.T. Krivonosov On the semantic nature of modal particles / to the formulation of the problem /. Philological Sciences, 1982, № 5, p. 50-58. 14. Miloserdova E.V. Semantics and pragmatics modality. / Miloserdova E.V. - Voronezh, 1991. - 196 p. 15. Metzler A.A. On the linguistic status of the category of modality. Philological Sciences, 1982, № 4, p. 66-72. 16. Mironova T.G. Lexico-grammatical means of expressing modality in modern Russian. Dis. . Cand. filol. sciences. - Tashkent, 1979. - 158 p. 17. Panfilov V.Z. The category of modality and its role in constructing the structure of sentence and judgment // Questions of linguistics. - 1977. - №4. - pp. 37-48. 18. Petrov N.E. On the content and volume of language modality. - / Petrov N.E. Novosibirsk, 1982. - 161 p. 19. Pirozhenko L.A. Wide context and implementation of modal values. In: Linguistics and Foreign Language Teaching. Kiev: High School, 1978, p. 143-148. 20. Plungyan V.A. General morphology: introduction to the problematic. - M .: Editorial URSS, 2003. - 384 p. 21. Polyakov M.G. Particles in modern English. Foreign languages at school, 1975, no. I, p. 101-106. 22. Polyakova N.K. O ratio of modal verbs and modal words in the expression of assumptions. In the book: Questions of the philology of the English language. Issue I. Mosk. state ped. in-t in.yaz them. M. Toreza. - M., 1973, p. 12-

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